Manuscript Collections - John L. McGruder


The Herbert Hoover Presidential Museum is now open daily to the public for viewing of the permanent galleries on the life and times of Herbert Hoover, tickets are available in person or online.

The Research Room is open to the public Monday through Friday, 9:00-12:00, and 12:30-4:15. Appointments are encouraged and can be made by calling (319) 643-5301 or via email:

22 linear feet, 9 linear inches (52 LGA-S boxes)
Herbert Hoover Presidential Library


John Lancer McGruder was born in Iowa City, Iowa on May 14, 1916.  McGruder attended Drake University in Des Moines, as well as Northwestern University. He dropped out of Drake to enlist in the Army Air Corps.  He received a master’s degree in public administration and international relations from the University of Chicago in 1950.

McGruder’s first jobs were in the insurance industry, working in Des Moines and Chicago throughout the 1930s and 1940s.  From 1940 to 1946, McGruder served in the U.S. Army Air Corp, and after retiring from active duty, served in the Air Force Reserves with the rank of colonel.  He joined the staff of the Navy Department in Washington as a management analyst in 1950, and the following year he took a job with the Atomic Energy Commission.  

From 1951 to 1962, McGruder served in a variety of posts at the AEC, including liaison officer for the Office of the General Manager, special assistant to the chairman (serving both Lewis Strauss and John McCone in this capacity), and director of the Division of Plans.  During his service with the AEC, McGruder also worked on the staff of the Hoover Commission on the Organization of the Executive Branch of Government, in 1954-1955.  With the Hoover Commission, McGruder worked as a staff analyst on the Task Force on Personnel and Civil Service, as well as a consultant to the Task Force on Intelligence Activities.  Following this work, McGruder also served as an assistant to the Special Assistant to the President, compiling reports and recommendations for implementing the findings of the Hoover Commission.

In his last position with the AEC, McGruder was responsible for long-range planning within the agency.  In 1962 McGruder moved to the private sector, taking a position with the Martin Marietta Corporation as director of administrative planning for the Martin Company.  McGruder hoped to apply his substantial expertise in long-range planning in a new context, but when company management lost interest in this goal in 1965, McGruder joined the Department of Commerce as the director of emergency transportation within the office of the Undersecretary for Transportation.  Within a couple of years, this office became the core of the newly-formed Department of Transportation, created at the suggestion of President Lyndon Johnson.  In this new department, McGruder served as the director of the Office of Emergency Transportation, and later, as the director of management systems.

McGruder left the Transportation Department in early 1978 to take a position in the Reorganization Implementation Unit of the Office of Management and Budget, where he remained for the next five years.  During this period, McGruder worked on a project to review and suggest alternatives for the administration of the Employee Retirement Income and Security Act (or ERISA), as well as a broader project to study the reorganization and deregulation of specific administrative functions with various Federal agencies.  This latter project was conducted with the assistance of a task force from the National Academy of Public Administration.  

After McGruder left the Office of Management and Budget, he continued to work as a public administration consultant in Washington.  During this period he became increasingly active in the work of the American Consortium for International Public Administration, or ACIPA, serving as the group’s executive director for several years until his retirement in 1992. Some highlights of McGruder’s service within ACIPA include his service on a task force convened by the foreign aid review task force of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs (1988), as well as the director of a series of twelve seminars on institutional development from 1984-1986.

During his years in Washington, McGruder also taught public administration courses at the American University and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Graduate School.  After his retirement from consulting, McGruder relocated to Sarasota, Florida in 1996.


The Papers are arranged in two series:  

The “Agencies and Departments Series” is arranged by the various agencies and organizations that McGruder worked for,

Among the organizations in the “Agencies and Departments” series are the following:

•    American Consortium for International Public Administration (ACIPA, 5 boxes): The bulk of material consists of notes on the seminars on institutional development which McGruder organized from 1984-1986, yet also contains files on other initiatives or projects spearheaded by McGruder.

•    Atomic Energy Commission (6 boxes): Although this material contains reports on a variety of topics, most of the original material concerns administrative planning, and especially long-range plans for the Commission which McGruder was responsible for in the early 1960s.

•    Brookings Institution Conference on Public Service (6 boxes): McGruder was hired by the Brookings Institution as a consultant in 1961, to work on a study of long-range planning in various Federal agencies. These files contain some background material on the conference, but primarily contain reports and other information on long-range planning from the various agencies that were surveyed. 

•    Transportation Department (10 boxes): Covers the years 1964-1978, including McGruder’s period of working within the Department of Commerce.  

•    Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA, 3 boxes): These files document McGruder’s involvement with a task force studying the reorganization of ERISA, which was one of McGruder’s responsibilities in his position with the Office of Management and Budget in 1978-1979.

•    Martin Company (2 boxes): Contains material relating to McGruder’s work on long-range planning with this division of Martin Marietta Corporation, 1962-1965.

•    National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA, 11 boxes): These files document another project that McGruder worked on during his years at OMB, that of studying the reorganization of the administrative functions of specific Federal agencies, from 1981-1983.

•    National Consumer Cooperative Bank (NCCB, 2 boxes): An agency signed into law during the Carter Administration, and with which McGruder was involved as part of his duties with the OMB.

•    Office of Management and Budget (2 boxes): Contains files not included in the subseries on ERISA, NAPA, or NCCB.

SUBJECT FILES contain mostly reading and research files. Includes files relating to McGruder’s work with the Second Hoover Commission. There may be overlap between these files and agencies in the first series. Arranged alphabetical by subject.



Box    Contents 


American Consortium for International Public Administration (ACIPA)

By-Laws, Program, 1980-1992
General, 1984-1992 (4 folders)
Ink, Dwight – Statement to Committee on Foreign Relations, 1985
Institutional Development

Seminar Preparation, 1983-84 (2 folders)


Seminar 1, 1984
Seminar 2, 1984-1885
Seminar 3, 1984
Seminar 4, 1984
Seminar 5, 1984 (2 folders, includes audiotapes)
Seminar 6, 1984
Seminar 7, 1984


Seminar 8, 1984 (3 folders, includes audiotapes)
Seminar 9, 1985 (2 folders, includes audiotapes)
Seminar 10, 1985
Seminar 11, 1985


Seminar 12, 1985
Seminar Speaker, David C. Karten, 1984
Seminars, Miscellaneous, 1984-85 (2 folders)
Seminar Summaries, 1984-85
Meeting on the Environment, Vienna, 1991-1992
Roundtable, Dubrovnic, Yugoslavia, 1976
United States-Japan Information Sharing, 1983-1991 (2 folders)


Western Hemisphere Initiative, 1986-87
Atomic Energy Commission

Briefing, 1959
Budget Planning, 1961-63
Critical Path Scheduling, 1961
Flood Damage Planning, 1960
General, 1953-1962 (3 folders)
Industrial Participation Program, 1962

Interdepartmental Committees, 1957
International Draft Statute, 1956
International Work Proposal, 1956
Interstate Commerce Commission, Defense Mobilization, 1956


Issuance System, 1953
Jenkins, Thomas E., “Budget Forecasting,” Undated
Kramish, Arnold – The Soviet Union and the Atom, 1957
Laboratory Planning, 1961
Laboratory Study Notes, 1959
Long Range Planning, 1960-1965 (4 folders)
McGruder, John L.

American University Courses

Correspondence, 1956-1957
Notes, 1960 and undated (3 folders)


Planning, Undated

McKinsey and Company, The Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy – An Analysis of The Atomic Energy Commissions Role, 1955
Maas, Arthur, Muddy Waters, undated
Manual, 1953-1961
Merchant Ships Reactor Program, undated
Miscellaneous, 1948-1953 (3 folders)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration – Long Range Plan, 1961
National Reactor Testing Station, Survey of Impact, 1952
NATO Nuclear Strategy, Undated
Nuclear Safety Program, 1962
Organization, 1953


Personnel, 1948-1958 (3 folders)
Planning, 1960-1961
Problems in Reporting, 1952-1953
Problems of Organization, 1951
Program Evaluation and Review Technique, 1961-1962
Program Planning, 1952-1961 (4 folders)


Program Reporting, 1960
Project Control, 1953-1962
Publications, 1960-1961
Ramey, James T., The Role of Planning in the AEC Program, 1965
Reporting, 1949-1962
Reporting Study, 1962
Reports, 1952-1954
Research Projects, 1957-1961
Role of the Commission and General Manager, 1958
Site Planning, 1961
Space Program Planning, 1961 (2 folders)
Speech Draft, Undated


Survey of Federal Agency Planning Practices, 1961-1962
Water Desalinization, 1961
Weapon Systems, Undated

Brookings Institution Study on Long Range Planning in Federal Agencies

Atomic Energy Commission, 1961
Bennett, Robert F., Surfboats, Rockets and Carronades, 1976
Bock, Edwin A., Urban Mass Transit Act of 1970
Census Bureau, 1961
Civil Service Commission, 1961
Commerce Department, 1960-1965 (3 folders)


National Bureau of Standards
Consolidated Reports on Projects, 1961 (3 folders)

Conference on the Public Service

Correspondence, 1961
General, 1961-1965 (2 folders)


Department of Defense, 1961
Directors of Personnel, 1960
Education, Ten Year Objectives, 1961
Federal Aviation Agency, 1961
Federal Power, 1958-59
General Papers, 1957-61
General Services Administration, 1961
Health, Education and Welfare, Dep’t. 1960-1961 (3 folders)


Historic Sites Survey, 1959-1960 (2 folders)
Housing and Home Finance Agency, 1961
Industrial Use of Agricultural Products, 1957
Interior Department

Bureau of Reclamation, 1956
General, 1958-1964 (2 folders)
Program for the Pacific Northwest, 1962-67

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1961
National Parks

Brochures, Undated


General, 1955-1956
Information Service, 1960-1961
Mission 66, 1956-1961 (2 folders)
Recreation Survey, 1958
Resources for the Future, 1960-1961
Surveys and Reports, 1959-1961

National Science Foundation, 1962
Oceanographic Program, 1961
Post Office, 1961
Public Works, 1961-62
Reclamation Bureau, 1952-55, Undated
Research Report #16, 1963
State Department, 1961


State Planning, 1959-61
Tennessee Valley Authority, 1960-1961 (2 folders)
Treasury Department, 1961
Water Pollution Control, 1961
Water Resources, 1955-61
Weather Bureau, 1961 (2 folders)    


Department of Transportation (DOT)
        Acquisitions, 1977
        Annual Southwest Transportation Seminar, Speech by Barry Goldwater, 1969
        Annual Transportation Conference, 1969
        Assessments/Evaluations, 1971
        Authorities of the Secretary, 1972, Undated
        Boyd, Alan, Secretary, 1966-68
        Budget, 1971-1976 (2 folders)
        Civil Supersonic Transportation Development Program, 1959-63
        Conference on the Public Service, 1968
        Consolidation, 1972


Consolidation of Highway Administration and Urban Mass Transportation, 1977
Dean, Alan L., “Decentralized Management,” 1972
Decentralized Management, 1970-73
Delegation of Powers, 1979, Undated
Employment Cutbacks, 1972
Emergency Planning

Abbreviations and Definitions, Official Manual, 1968
General, 1962-67
Restricted, 1962-65
State and Local Levels, 1961, Undated
Emergency Plans, 1965-66
Emergency Preparedness, 1966 (2 folders)


Charts, Undated 
Claiming Supporting Resources for Civil Transportation, 1972
Commerce Department, Report, 1966
Control of Civil Transportation, 1970

General, 1967-68 (2 folders)


McGruder, John, 1961-1968 (2 folders)
National Defense Executive Reserve Program, Review of, 1970
National Transportation Day, 1968
Organization, 1968-1971 (5 folders)
Railroads, 1969


Southeastern Territorial Meeting, 1969
Speeches by Others, 1967-69
Transportation, 1969

Establishment of Department, 1949-1966 (5 folders)
Evaluating System, Undated
Evaluation, 1970-1976
Executive Retreat, 1970
Federal Aviation Agency Handbook, 1964-67
Federal Aviation Administration Planning, 1962, 1971
Federal Budget, 1976
Federal Regional Councils, 1976


Field Organization Study, 1977
Financial Management System, 1971, Undated
General, 1966-67
Graduate School Course, 1972
History, 1968-1977 (3 folders)
Hurricane Betsey, 1965
Improving Public Services, 1979
Integrated Budgeting, Undated
Interagency Emergency Transportation, 1968
Interstate Commerce Commission, Speeches, 1965
Long Range Planning, Undated
Long Range Policy Planning, 1974
McGruder, John L.

Federal Management Systems Course, 1966-69
Speeches, 1966-69


Management Information Center, 1970-1971 (2 folders)
Management Information Steering Committee, 1967-69
Management Information Systems, 1969-70
Management Plan, 1970
Management Planning, 1972
Management Review, Undated
Management Systems, 1968-73
Manpower Issues, 1976, Undated
Memoranda, 1974-76
Memorandum of Law, 1968
Miscellaneous, Undated
National Defense Transportation, Printed Material, 1965-69


National Transportation Week Speech, 1968
Natural Disaster Plan, 1966-1972 (2 folders)
News Letters, 1971
Newspaper Clippings, 1968-69
Objectives, Problems, 1967-68
Office of the Secretary, 1968
Organization and Management Task Force Report, 1971
Organization Plan, Undated
Performance Measurement (Evaluation), 1971
Performance Planning, 1973
Personnel Management, Undated
Planning and Programming, 1971    
Planning and Programming Manual, 1969
Planning Techniques, 1963, Undated
Policy and Planning Functions, Concept Paper, Undated
Policy and Procedure, 1956-60
Program Evaluation, 1971


Programming System, 1968
Proposed Organization, 1966
Public Service, 1964-79
Records Management Guidelines, 1970
Regional Councils, 1970
Regional Rail Reorganization Act, 1973-1974 (2 folders)
Relations with Office of Management and Budget, 1974
Reorganization, 1969-1978 (4 folders)
Role in Government, 1970-71
Round Table Conference, 1970-1971 (2 folders)
Shoemaker, Perry M., “The Small Shipment Opportunity,” 1970
Societal Engineering, 1969
Southeastern Territorial Convention, 1972


Speeches Given at King’s Point, New York, 1972
Structural Changes, Chronology of, 1975
Supersonic Transport (SST) Study, 1972
System for Planning, Programming, Budgeting, 1974
TAD, 1977, Undated
Teamwork and Coordination, 1969-72
Technology, 1968-72
Transition Report, 1976    
Transportation Proceedings, Magazine of Military Traffic Management, 1969
Transportation Test Center, 1975
United Nations

Integrated Budgeting System, 1974
Vienna Conference, 1976
Urban Mass Transit Act, 1972

Volpe, John A., Speech, 1969


Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)

Alternative Plans to Reorganization, 1979
Amendments to Act, 1979
Consultants, 1979 (2 folders)
Daniels, Walter E., Policy Memorandum, 1979
General Papers, 1977-78
Evaluation, 1979
Internal Revenue Service, 1979
Organizational Structure, 1979


Pension Plans, 1979
Problems, 1979
Reorganization, 1978-1979 (7 folders)


Report to Congress, 1979-1980 (2 folders)
Security Act, 1979 (2 folders)
Simplification Conference, 1979 (2 folders)
Task Force, 1979


Martin Company

Administration Functional Plan, 1964-68
Calendar, 1964
Conference on Public Service, 1984
Denver Division Plan, 1965
Five Year Plan, Undated
Functional Plans, 1961-1964 (3 folders)
Future Plans, 1963
General, 1961-1963 (3 folders)


General, 1964-1965 (3 folders)
Long Range Planning, 1961-62
Market Forecast, 1963
Memoranda, 1964
Miscellaneous, Undated
Objectives, 1962
Planning, 1963-64
Planning Manual, 1962


National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) Deregulation of Government

Management Project

Addresses, 1982-83
Administration Team, 1982
Administrative Services, 1984
Agriculture Department, 1983
Background Information, 1983
Budget Process Staff Report, 1983
Building/Space Management, 1983
Chapter 7 (6 folders)
Civil Service, 1983
Comments on Draft Paper, 1982
Correspondence, 1983
Cost Control of Federal Government, 1982
Cost to Business, 1979
Council of Federal Officials, 1982-83
Department of Transportation, 1974


Department of Transportation, 1982 (2 folders)
Doctrines of Presidential Management, 1979
Draft Report, 1983 (2 folders)
Executive Summaries, 1983
Facilities Management, 1982
Federal Budget Process, 1982-83
Financial Management, 1982-83
General Administration Team, 1982-83 (2 folders)
General Information, 1982-1983
General Notes, Undated


General Services Administration (GSA), 1980-1983 (4 folders)
Information Resources Management, 1982
Interim Report, 1982, Copies 2 and 3
Interviews with Departments, 1982 (2 folders)
Management in the Federal Government, Undated
Management of Executive Departments, 1982
Meetings, 1982-83
Members of Staff, 1982-83
Memoranda, 1982-83
Miscellaneous, 1983


Notes, Undated
Organization and Business, 1982
Overall Project Papers, 1983
Panel Papers, 1982
Panel Plans, 1982-1983 (4 folders)
Personal Property Management

General, 1982-83 (4 folders)
Government Accounting Office Report to Congress, 1981


Government Accounting Office Report to Congress, 1983
Interim Report, 1983 (2 folders)
Miscellaneous, 1983
Staff Report, 1983
Work Plan and Schedule, 1983
Working Group Drafts, 1983

Personnel Management, 1982-1983 (3 folders)
Planning the Project, 1981-82
Postal Service, 1983


Preparation for Study Project, 1982

Big Eight Plans
Interviews of Agencies
Need for Reform
Working Drafts

Press Briefing, 1982
Printing Management

Final Report, 1983
General Information, 1983
Policy, 1980
Responses to Interim Reports, 1983
Services, 1982


Staff Report, 1983
Task Force, 1983

Procurement Process, 1983
Programs, 1969
Property Management

Draft Interim Reports, 1983 (2 folders
Executive Summaries, 1983
Meetings, 1983
Miscellaneous, 1983
Overview, 1982-83 (2 folders)


Questionnaire, 1983
Responses to Issue Papers, 1983
Working Groups Drafts, 1983

Railway Association, 1983 (2 folders)
Regulatory Review, 1983
Report on Presidential Management, 1980
Response to Issue Papers, 1983
Social Security, 1984
Space Management, Undated


Space Utilization, 1982-1983 (5 folders)
Standard Level User Changes, 1983
Suggestions, 1982
Summaries and Responses, 1983
Synthetic Fuels Corporation, 1983
Technology Systems, 1982
Travel Management, 1983

Issue Papers and Responses
Excessive Reporting
Interim Reports


Organization and System
Staff Reports
Working Group Meetings
Working Paper Report

Veterans Administration, 1983
Working Draft Reports, 1983

National Consumer Cooperative Bank (NCCB)

Board Meetings, 1982
Budget Planning, 1981
Delegation of Authority, 1980
Functional Statements, Delegation of Authority, 1980-8
Information, 1979-80


Issuance System, Undated
Management Systems, 1980
Organization, 1980-1981 (3 folders)
Regional Offices, 1980
Policies, 1979-80
Position Descriptions, 1980
Project Review, 1980


Office of Management and Budget, (OMB)

Citizens Advisory Committee on Integrity and Efficiency in Government, 1981
Contract Compliance Consolidation, 1978
Control Systems, 1981
Emergency Management Reorganization, 1978
Federal Procurement Policy, 1979
Federal Travel Policy, 1981-1982 (3 folders)
General Papers, 1970-71
Government Integrity and Efficiency, 1981
McGruder, John L., 1978
McKinsey and Company Report, 1970
Management Analysis, 1978
Reduction of Travel Costs, 1975-80


Resource Sharing, Undated
Ride Sharing, 1980
Travel Management Improvement Project, 1981 (2 folders)



Agency for International Development (AID)

Digest, 1962
General, 1981
Luncheon, Notes and Audio Tape, 1951-52
Policy, 1983

Agriculture Department

National Forests, 1959-1961 (2 folders)
Policy Planning, 1961

American Society for Public Administration, 1964
Bureau of the Budget

Long Range Planning, 1963
Management Analysis, 1970
Plan for Recurring Appraisals, 1958
Principles and Practices, 1947

Canestrari, Ronald, A History of Emergency Transportation During World War II,

Korea, 1967

Carey, William D., “Management in Federal Government,” Undated
Civil Rights, Reorganization, 1978
Commerce Department

Defense Management Systems Course, 1966
Emergency Preparedness, 1966
Emergency Transportation Program Planning Draft, 1964-65
John Connor, 1966
Speech by McGruder, 1966


Community Development, 1985-86
Conference on the Public Service

Civil Rights Law, 1965
Governmental Planning, 1961
Questionnaire, Undated
Survey of Federal Agencies Planning Practices, 1961 (4 folders)

Congressional Reports, 86th Congress, 1959-61


Emergency Planning Office, “National Plan,” 1964 
European Investment Bank, 1989
Federal Aviation Administration, Planning, 1964
Federal Communications Commission, Changes to Policy, Undated
Federal Executive Board

Resource Sharing, 1980-1981
Ride Sharing, 1973-1980

Federalism, 1972-1973
Foreign Assistance Program, 1988-1989 (2 folders)
Free Kuwait Campaign, 1990
General Accounting Office Newsletter, 1972
General Services Administration (GSA)

General, 1978-1981 (2 folders)


Data Collection Memorandum, 1980 (3 folders)
Evaluation, 1980
Organizational History (3 folders)
Panel Meeting, 1980

Government Reorganization, 1971
Health, Education and Welfare Department

Air Pollution, 1960
General Papers, 1961
Indicators, 1960 
Regional Management Review Program, 1973
Publications, 1960

Hoover Commission II

American Legion, 1954
Civil Rights Law, 1965
Commerce Department, John Connor, 1966
Environmental Planning, 1957


Federal Long Range Planning, undated
Federal Medical Services 1956
Intelligence Activities, 1955 (3 folders)
National Academy of Sciences, 1955
Overseas Economic Operations, 1955
Personnel and Civil Service, 1955
Project Control, 1962
Housing and Urban Development Management, 1973
Institute of Administrative Management, 1983
Interagency Travel Management Improvement Project, 1981
Interior Department – National Park Service Master Plan, 1959 (2 folders)
Internal Revenue Service, Long Range Planning, Undated
International Atomic Energy Agency, 1984-92
International Budgeting, 1984-1988 (2 folders)
International Congress of Administrative Sciences, 1968, 1992 (2 folders)


International Institute of Administrative Sciences (IIAS)

General, 1977-1992 (3 folders)
Madrid, 1990
Preliminary Reports, 1990
Puerto Rico, 1992

Johnson, Lyndon, B. – Budget and Economic Reports, 1966 and undated 
Joint Chiefs of Staff – Organization, 1958
Labor Management Services Administration, undated
McGruder, John L.

Course Outlines, 1963
Course Syllabus, 1967
Courses Taught, 1960-69
Graduate Course on Public Administration, 1945-1947
Job Applications, 1965
Notes, undated (2 folders)


Resume, 1960
Speeches, 1962

Major Emergency Action System, 1975-1985 (3 folders)
Management and Planning, Excerpts and Articles, 1958, Undated
Management Technology, 1964
Management Training, 1985, Undated
Miller, S. M. and Martin, Rein, “Participation, Poverty, and Administration, 1969
Miscellaneous, 1968-84
Morals and Pressure Politics, 1966-70
National Journal Conference on Aging, 1979
Navy Department

Concessions Report, 1951
Property Management Audit, 1947
Supply Operations, 1951

New York City, Department of Purchases, 1964


Personnel Management Office, 1979
Planning and Administration, 1982
Planning and Budget Review System, 1974, Undated
President’s Management Improvement Council, 1980
Program Evaluation and Research Technique, 1961
Program Planning for National Goals, 1968
Public Sector Productivity, Undated
Publications, 1984-85
Research Triangle Institute – Current National Transportation Posture, 1962 (2 folders)
Resources for the Future, Inc. Publications, 1958-61
Rosenthal, Gary L., “The Politics of Reorganization, Creating a DOT,” 1971
The Secretariat Function by John Gange, 1953


The Sinews of War, Army Logistics, 1775-1955, 1966
Staff Work for the President, 1954
Strauss, Lewis L. – Memorial Service, 1974
Tennessee Valley Authority Long Range Planning, 1961
United States International Transportation Exposition, 1972
United States Railroad Association, 1980
Urban Development, 1961
Veterans Administration Program Planning, 1961
Water Resources, 1959-1961 (2 folders)
Water Supply and Pollution Control Evaluation, 1960
W. D. Saunders and Co., Potential Emergency Transportation Capacity, 1963 (2 folders)

Top of the page