Manuscript Collections - Truman Smith Papers

March 13, 2020

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TRUMAN SMITH PAPERS
2 linear feet, 8 linear inches (6 LGA-S boxes)
Herbert Hoover Presidential Library

SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE

From 1935 to 1939 Col. Smith served as American military attaché in Berlin. From this unique vantage point he observed and reported Germany's transformation into a war‑oriented economy and the rearmament of her army and air forces. Smith was one of the first to call attention to Hitler's placing the Reich on a war footing and his series of reports on the astonishing capabilities of the Luftwaffe became the focus of considerable controversy.

In May 1936 Smith arranged to have Charles A. Lindbergh inspect the German aircraft industry and the reorganized Luftwaffe. Lindbergh was allowed to make five inspection trips. In these visits he toured German aviation factories; inspected the latest aircraft; visited the most recently deployed tactical units of the new German air force; and discussed the evolution of tactical and strategic concepts with Luftwaffe officers. During his October 1938 visit a unique intelligence coup was scored when Lindbergh was permitted to fly the Messerschmitt Bf 109.

As a result of his observations, Lindbergh returned to the United States in 1939 determined to campaign for greater military preparations and American neutrality. In a series of speeches he opposed any revisions of the Neutrality Act of 1937 which would strip the U.S. of its defenses and tend to embroil her in the War. As popular sentiment gradually swung in favor of the Allies, Lindbergh and Smith were denounced in the press as fascists and henchmen of the Third Reich. The accuracy of the Lindbergh‑Smith reports were questioned and dismissed as defeatist propaganda. A recent assessment, by intelligence specialist Col. Ivan D. Yeaton, holds that they were "The finest example of intelligence reporting that I have ever seen".

In 1953, Army intelligence asked Smith to prepare an account of his activities in Berlin and an assessment of the assistance he had received from Lindbergh. Smith was given special access to G‑2 files and several typescript and carbon copies of his carefully researched monograph, Air Intelligence Activities . . . Berlin, 1939, were prepared. The ribbon copy and literary properties were presented to the Yale University Library. Smith retained several carbon copies of the document for distribution to his friends and the appropriate governmental agencies. One copy and two drafts containing corrections and comments in Lindbergh's hand were included with the gift of Smith's personal papers to the Hoover Presidential Library. Evidence of a third draft can be found in a nine page holograph letter from Lindbergh dated May 31, 1955.

As might be expected, Col. Lindbergh's visits to Germany provided the basis for a friendship which lasted for many years. The warmth of that relationship may be sensed from the letters exchanged by the Smiths and Lindberghs between 1936 and 1964.

Students of the interwar years will also be delighted to find that this collection contains not one, but three eyewitness accounts of life in Germany in the 1930's. In addition to Air Intelligence Activities, Smith also prepared an autobiography, Facts of Life, which contains additional comments on his service in Berlin and the aftermath of the Lindbergh‑Smith reports. The third eyewitness account is that of Mrs. Smith, which she subsequently compiled from her diaries.

Aside from its comments on his association with Lindbergh and the  methods they employed, Facts of Life is probably most notable for its  perspectives on the career and character of George C. Marshall. Smith served under Marshall from 1928 to 1932 as an instructor of military history and tactics at the famous infantry school at Ft. Benning. Later it was Marshall who helped engineer his assignment to Berlin; and Marshall who not only protected Smith and convinced the White House to call off the press barrage, but insisted on retaining Smith as his principal advisor on Germany. Of particular note in this regard is a carbon copy of extracts from Smith's memorandum of November 1, 1937 concerning the development of German airpower. Across the top of the sheet is Marshall's notation: "Secretary of War: This was Col. Truman Smith's report from Berlin about a year before 'Munich'."

Smith believed in rearming Germany as a counterbalance to Soviet power. The opportunity to play a role in the rebuilding of the Wehrmacht finally came in the middle 1950's. He corresponded with Generals Blummentritt, von Schwerin, and Speidel and visited Germany several times. In 1960 he hosted Speidel, who had recently been selected to command the Wehrmacht, during an official visit. Smith's evaluation of the new German army was recorded in a 1963 memorandum, "Estimate of the Combat Value of the German Army".

A great deal of Smith's success as a military attaché was due to disciplined professionalism and foresight. During his service with the American occupation forces after World War I and as our attaché in Berlin from 1920‑24, Smith met many German officers and took advantage of every opportunity to cultivate and enlarge this circle of friendships. Later, when he was on the faculty at Ft. Benning, he convinced Marshall to invite several of them to attend the school. Thus he was able to form some very valuable friendships with such highly placed officers as Adolf von Schell and Defense Minister von Blomberg; and, in return, he and his assistant attaches were invited to attend German officer schools.

Mrs. Smith understood and supported her husband's efforts, ad entered into them wholeheartedly. In her account of life in Berlin in the 1930's she describes her efforts to get the other service wives to become proficient in German so that they would know what was going on around them. The Smith's entertained frequently because she understood the value of the tidbits that could be gleaned from otherwise casual conversations.

Surviving from Col. Smith's earlier years of service are typescript copies of Smith's letters to his wife from the Mexican border (1917), from France and Germany (1918‑19), and typescript copies of his notes concerning a visit to Munich during the week of November 15‑22, 1922, including a personal interview with Hitler and a report concerning the trip.

In addition to the materials mentioned previously, the collection also includes copies of many of Smith's reports to G‑2 (1935‑45), and several articles and speeches (1941‑67). Of particular note is a series of articles on military developments which Smith prepared for syndication in 1941‑42 under the nom de plume, "Strategicus".

SERIES DESCRIPTIONS

Box      Contents
1‑5       SUBJECT FILES 1919‑75.  5 containers.
            Correspondence, memoranda, reports, and clippings concerning Smith's personal and
            professional life with particular emphasis on his intelligence gathering activities in
            Germany from 1935 to 1939. Arranged alphabetically by names or subject.

6          WRITINGS AND SPEECHES 1916‑67 and undated  2 containers.
            Drafts and printed versions of Smith's writings and speeches. Arranged chronologically.

RELATED MATERIALS

Berlin Alert: The Memoirs and Reports of Truman Smith is in our library U55 .S548 A33 LA

FOLDER LIST

SUBJECT FILES

Box      Contents
1          Air Intelligence Activities. . . Berlin, 1935‑1939
                     Correspondence, 1953‑1964
                     Bound Volume
                     Lindbergh Comments, 1955
                     Lindbergh Corrected Manuscript (2 folders)
            Army
                     G‑2 Division, 1941‑1952 and undated
                     Lectures at Fort Benning, 1928‑1932
                     War College Monographs, 1932‑1933
            B General Correspondence, 1941‑1970 and undated
            C General Correspondence, 1946‑1967
            Clippings
            D‑F General Correspondence, 1946‑1970
            Faymonville, Philip R., 1970
            G General Correspondence, 1969‑1970

2          Germany
                     Army Development, 1954-1956, 1963-1964 (2 folders)
                     German Air Power, 1937
                     Military Attaché
                              Correspondence, 1935‑1938
                              Activities of the Office of the Military Attaché, 1935‑1939, undated memo
                              Reports, 1935-1938 (3 folders)
                     Military Intelligence Reports, 1940‑1945
                     Photographs, 1934‑1935 and undated
            Guatemala and Communism, 1952‑1954
            H General Correspondence, 1940‑1970
            Hitler and the National Socialists, 1922‑1924
                     Correspondence, 1960‑1961
                     Bound Volume (2 copies)
            Hoover Commission, 1948‑1949
            Hoover, Herbert, 1945‑1964

3          L General Correspondence, 1948‑1968
            Lindbergh, Charles and Ann
                     Correspondence, 1936‑1975
                     Clippings, 1927 1964
            Lodge, John Davis, 1946‑1962
            Luce, Clare Booth, 1945‑1964 and undated
            M General Correspondence, 1940‑1970
            Marshall, Gen. George C., 1957‑1969
            O‑R General Correspondence, 1955‑1972 and undated
            Russian Declaration of War on Japan – G‑2 Report, 1951‑1969
            S General Correspondence, 1947‑1967 and undated
            Smith, Katchen, 1937-1938, 1940-1941 and undated (3 folders)
            Smith, Katherine
                     Letters to Katchen from Central America, 1952
                     My Life – Berlin, 1935‑1939

4                   My Life‑The War Years, 1939‑1946 (acc. 462/4)
                     Scrapbooks (Germany), 1933-1939 (4 folders)
            Smith, Truman
                     Biographical Sketches
                     Clippings
                     Army Service
                              Commendations, 1922‑1948
                              Decorations, 1919‑1948
                              Orders, 1932‑1956

5                            Personnel File, 1919-1946 (acc. 462/5)
                              Retirement Benefits, 1945‑1974
                     Facts of Life, 1893‑1946
                              Manuscript
                              Supporting Documents
                     Letters from the Mexican Border, 1916-1917
                     Letters from France and Germany, 1918-1919 (2 folders)
            Speidel, Hans, 1948‑1970
            T General Correspondence, 1947‑1969
            Taft, Robert A., 1945‑1952
            Trudeau, Arthur G., 1955‑1962
            V General Correspondence, 1967
            Vietnamese War, 1967‑1968
            W General Correspondence, 1946‑1961
            Wedemeyer, A. C., 1947‑1968
            Wood, Robert E. and Mrs., 1945‑1969 and undated
            Z and Unidentified General Correspondence, 1962‑1968

WRITINGS AND SPEECHES

Box      Contents
6          Strategicus - article, 1941-1942
                     Printed
                     Typescript
            America’s Airpower – Speech, Bridgeport Chamber of Commerce, 1946
            Hitler’s Trick Gadgets, Unlimited – article, 1946
            La Abdicacion del Estado‑Mayor Aleman - article, 1946
            Nazi Strategy – lecture – Army War College, 1947-1948
            John Lodge – letter to editor, Bridgeport Post, 1948
            Remarks – Foreign Affairs Round Table, 1948
            Universal Military Training – testimony – Senate Armed Services Committee, 1948
            Radio Debate with Norman Thomas, 1948-1949 (disarmament, size of army)
            Rise of German Air Power, 1933‑1939 – lecture – Air War College, 1948-1949
            Hoover Report – speech – Republican Woman's Club of Greenwich, 1949
            Speech – 4th of July, 1949 (Declaration of Independence)
            Speech – Westport Woman's Club, 1950 (foreign policy)
            Joseph Anthony Michela – article, 1950
            Thoughts on the Defense of Europe – speech ‑ University Club, N.Y.C., 1950
            The Freeman: Europe Between the Acts by R. Waldeck – book review, 1951
            An American Views Post‑war Germany – newspaper columns, 1955
            Memorandum, 1958 (proposal to allow West Germany to use Virgin Islands for Military
                     and scientific research)
            The Infamous Record of Soviet Espionage – article, Reader’s Digest, 1960
            Notes on a Lazy Winter – newspaper articles and manuscript, 1961
                     (Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico)
            Critique of Miracle on the Marne by Lawrence Kamarck, 1961
            A Summer at a Montana Dude Ranch, 1962
            Jungling as a Winter Sport, 1963
            Letters from Germany, 1963
            Estimate of the Combat Value of the German Army, 1963
            Latin American Cruise – letter, 1964
            Not Much Rain in Spain, 1965
            Smith to Clark on Viet Nam – letter, 1967
            A Visit to a Market, undated (Mexico)

Published Articles
            German General Staff Abdicates. Infantry Journal. 58: 22‑7. Jan., 1946.
            Stalingrad or Bust. Infantry Journal. 59:14‑19. Aug., 1946.
            Lindbergh and the Luftwaffe. American Mercury. 82:93 April, 1956.
            Infamous – Record of Soviet Espionage. Reader's Digest. 77:36‑42. Aug., 1960.