"Revolutionary America! 1763-1789 April 20-November 3, 2002


photo of exhibit section
In this photo:

OIL PAINTING "Examining the Flag" by Jennie Brownscombe, early 20th century

  On loan from the collection of:
    --Claude and Jeanne Harkins
FLAGS (reproductions): the BETSY ROSS FLAG, or STARS AND STRIPES - first official flag adopted by Congress on June 14, 1777, and the BENNINGTON FLAG - first flag to lead American forces on land, August 16, 1777
    --Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum, West Branch IA
BRANDYWINE-related ARTIFACTS: GOLD LOCKET containing wisps of hair from George Washington and Colonel "Mad Anthony" Wayne; the PRINT "Washington and Lafayette at Brandywine"; and BRONZE STATUE of the Marquis de Lafayette
    --State Historical Society of Iowa, Des Moines IA
    --Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Hyde Park NY
    --James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library, Fredericksburg VA
    --Andy Ball, Des Moines IA
    --Claude and Jeanne Harkins
    --Charles Pope, Marion IA
SARATOGA-related DOCUMENTS: a BROADSIDE drafting men for the Continental Army, 1777; and a PROVISIONS REPORT of supplies on hand in New York, July 15, 1777
    --University of Iowa Main Library, Special Collections, Iowa City IA
    --Robert G. Oswald
PRINT (reproduction) depicting the "Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga"
    --Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Hyde Park NY

Lose Philadelphia, Gain France

In June 1777, Congress designated the Stars and Stripes as the official flag for the United Colonies, but soon the capital city was threatened by British takeover. Joining the defensive line along Brandywine Creek was a French newcomer, the MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE, who believed that "the welfare of America is closely bound up with the welfare of mankind." He was forced to retreat with the Continentals as the English triumphantly entered Philadelphia, but became a trusted advisor to General Washington.

At Saratoga, New York, it was the Redcoats who took a beating, held at bay by Daniel Morgan and his frontier sharpshooters (newly released from British prisons). Inspired by the snipers' performance, Benedict Arnold leaped onto his horse to lead a heroic charge into the enemy camp that ultimately forced the British to surrender. This victory became a turning point in the war, renewing confidence and sparking hope for an alliance with France!


A Confederation
The Continental Navy
  Father of the Navy--John Paul Jones
Fate of America
  Commander-In-Chief, George Washington
Saratoga (You are here)
  Official Flag


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